Most of Denmark consists of Jutland, a peninsula jutting into the North and Baltic Seas. Covering 29,766 sq km, Jutland accounts for about 70% of Denmark´s area. The rest of the land consists of nearby islands, and approximately 500 smaller islands, about 100 of which are inhabited. More than 75% of Denmark lies below 100 m and is flat or gently undulating. Most of western Jutland is marked by occasional undulating areas of older glacial deposits and extensive flat areas underlain by sands and gravels. Eastern Jutland and the islands, have a more rolling landscape dotted with many small lakes. The highest point in the country, Yding Skovhoj, rises to 173 m in east-central Jutland.
Denmark has a temperate marine climate, which is mild for its latitude. The country receives the heating effect of the North Atlantic Drift, part of the warm Gulf Stream. The mean temperature for February, the coldest month, is -0.4°C, and for July, the warmest month, 17°C. Average precipitation is 664 mm annually. July and August are the wettest months, and the spring months are the driest. Denmark is subject to marine and continental air masses, and great differences occur in the day-to-day weather, depending on the direction of the prevailing winds.
Total population is 5,249,632 (World Factbook, July 1996 est.). Nearly 85% of the population is urban, with 38% of the total population concentrated in the four largest cities (Kobenhavn, Alborg, Odense, and Arhus). Toward the end of the 19th century Denmark, like all industrialized European nations, experienced a pronounced migration of people from the countryside to the towns and larger cities; this urbanization has almost ceased, however. At present, Denmark has a very low population growth rate.
Stations from the IDMP Network measure both daylight and solar radiation.

Clock Time: GMT+1. Summer time shift (GMT+2), from last Sunday in March,
to Saturday before last Sunday in October.

  1. "Bygningsreglementer, 1995". ("Danish Building Code 1995", in Danish), Chapter 4.4.2, item 5 through 7. Workrooms, Daylighting. As a general recommendation: Window area 10% of floor area by sidelight, or 7% by overhead-light. Chapter 12.9. Artificial lighting systems.

  2. "SBI-Anvisning 184, Bygningers Energibehov. 1995". (Danish Building Research Institute direction 184, "Energy Demand in Buildings", in Danish, with English summary). Chapter: Lighting.

  3. "Dansk Standard 700. Retningslinier for kunstig belysning i arbejdslokaler. 4. edition". ("Danish Standard 700. Direction for artificial lighting in workrooms. 4th edition"). Danish Standard, Copenhagen, Denmark.

  4. Further standards in the 700-serie: DS 703. "Direction for lighting in hospitals", DS 704. "Terminology of lighting", DS 705. "Artificial lighting in dentist clinics", DS 707.1 through 17. "Lighting for sport" (17 different types).

  5. "Arbejdsministeriet, Bekendtgørelse nr 1163, 1992. Bekendtgørelse om faste arbjdssteders indretning". (Ministry of Labor, Order n°1163, 1992. "Order concerning arrangements of permanent worplaces", in Danish). § 25 Daylighting and § 38 - 40 Artificial Lighting.

  6. "Arbejdstilsynet, publikation nr 25, Projektering af Erhvervsbyggeri, 1969", (Work and Factory Inspection, Brochure n°25, "Planning of industrial or commercial buildings", 1969 or later, in Danish).

  7. "TV. Dagslysadgang til Arbejdspladser. Okt 1979." (Danish Academy of Technical Sciences, "Daylighting of Workspaces". October 1979. In Danish). DELTA Lights and Optics, a non profit organisation affiliated to Danish Academy of Technical Sciences (ATV).
Danish Illuminating Engineering Society
(Lysteknisk Selskab, LTS)
Byvej 12
Postbox 28, DK-3660 Stenløse
Tel: +45 47 17 1800
Fax: 45 47 17 0832
CIE on the Internet.


More information is available at Amadeus or the Electric Library

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