Italy can be divided topographically into three parts: continental, peninsular, and insular Italy. Continental Italy, in the north, includes the broad, triangular-shaped North Italian Plain-Italy's only large lowland-and the high mountains of the Alps, which curve along the northern border in a broad arc. Peninsular Italy encompasses all of the Italian peninsula south of the North Italian Plain and the junction of the Ligurian Alps with the Apennines at Savona. The Apennines form the backbone of the peninsula and reach their highest elevation in the central or Abruzzi Apennines. In the northern and central sections of the peninsula, the highest mountains are close to the Adriatic coast. Insular Italy includes Sardegna, Sicilia, and many smaller islands off their shores. Sardegna covers an area of 23,812 sq km and rises to a high point of 1,834 m. Sicilia covers an area of 28,812 sq km and rises to 3,262 m in Mount Etna.
Except for the Alps, which have a mountain climate that varies with altitude, Italy has a Continental climate in the north and a Mediterranean climate in the south. Summer temperatures average 24 °C in July, but winter temperatures range from a January average of 1°C at Bolzano in the north to 7°C at Roma, and 12°C at Palermo on Sicilia. Six climatic subregions may be distinguished. The Alpine zone is characterized by harsh winters, abundant precipitation, frequent snow, and cool summers. The lowlands of the North Italian Plain experience harsh winters with long periods of frost, warm summers, precipitation concentrated in spring and fall, and intense fog in fall and winter. The coastal Tyrrhenian region has mild winters and hot, dry summers. The Adriatic coast has a climate similar to that of the Tyrrhenian coast but tends to be drier and colder in winter. The Apennines are climatically similar to the North Italian Plain. The islands have a typically Mediterranean climate, with hot, dry summers and mild winters.
Italy has one of the highest population densities in Europe (about 200 persons per sq km). Even though the average growth rate in the Mezzogiorno (south) is higher than in the north, the population of central and northern Italy has generally tended to grow faster than that of the Mezzogiorno, mostly because of an internal migration pattern in which people from the less developed south move northward in search of the greater economic opportunities they expect to find in the developed areas. Just under three-quarters of the population live in urban areas, a figure close to the European average. The largest city is Roma. Milano, Napoli, and Torino each have more than one million inhabitants. Other large cities include Genoa, Palermo, Bologna, Firenze, Catania, and Venezia. Total population is 57,460,274 (World Factbook, July 1996 est.).
Stations from the IDMP Network measure both daylight and solar radiation.

Clock Time: GMT+1. Summer time shift (GMT+2), from last Sunday in March,
to Saturday before last Sunday in October.

The daylighting design standards are very poorly stated in the Italian legislation. Indeed the only reference is based on the obligation to have a ratio between the glazed area and the useful surface of a room greater than 1/8. Only locally, at regional level or at a city level, some further detailed obligations are issued on design parameters to be verified prior to receiving the construction licence (I.E in Lombardia the daylight factor at 1m from the most interior wall of a room should at least be 1%).

A leaflet, called "Cartello Meteorologico", is published on a daily basis, by: Aeronautica Militare I.T.A.V. 2 Reparto, in Rome, which carries out the Meteorological Service in Italy. One could subscribe to the monthly collection on these daily leaflets.

For all legislation on working places:
Dott.ssa Rocca, Ing. Alvino
Ministero del Lavoro e della Previdenza Sociale
Direzione Generale del Rapporti di Lavoro
Divisione VII
Via Flavia 6 - ROMA
Tel: +39 6 47887229

For all legislation on buildings in general:
Ministero della Sanità
Direzione Generale di Segreteria
Divizione IV Igiene Pubblica
Via del Carri Armati 13 - ROMA
Tel: +39 6 59944208

The body responsible for the emission of codes of best practiceis:
UNI Via Battistotti Sassi 11 MILANO
Tel: +39 2 70106914
Comitato Nazionale Italiano della CIE

c/o Prof.P.Soardo, Ist.Elettrotecnico Nazionale G.Ferraris
Strada delle Cacce 91
I-10135 Torino
Tel: +39 11 3488933
Fax: +39 11 346384
CIE on the Internet.


More information is available at Amadeus or the Electric Library

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