Small differences in elevation distinguish the "Low Netherlands" located in the north and west at less than 1 m above sea level, from the more elevated "High Netherlands" in the south and east, which reaches an altitude of 321 m in the extreme southeast. Approximately a third of the entire country lies below sea level at high tide. Another 25% is so low-lying that it would be subject to inundation if it were not for the surrounding dunes and dikes and the regular pumping of excess water. The lowest point is 6.7 m below mean sea level, immediately to the northeast of Rotterdam.
The Netherlands shares with the rest of northwestern Europe a northern maritime climate; prevailing winds from the south and west exercise a moderating marine influence. Because of its small size and low elevations, the country´s regional climatic differences are negligible. Temperatures average 17°C in July and 2°C in January. Precipitation averages 792 mm a year, is evenly distributed, and varies little from year to year. Frontal storms can bring rapid weather changes at any time but occur most frequently in the fall.
More than 40% of the Dutch live in cities with 50,000 inhabitants or more, and nearly half the population are concentrated in an area of coalescing municipalities known as Randstad Holland that stretches from Utrecht through Amsterdam, The Hague, and Rotterdam. The largest cities are Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague, Utrecht, Eindhoven, Haarlem, Groningen, Tilburg, Nijmegen, Enschede, and Apeldoorn. The population density is one of the highest in the world. South Netherlands is the most densely populated province, and Drenthe, is the most sparsely populated. Total population is 15,568,034 (World Factbook, July 1996 est.).
Stations from the IDMP Network measure both daylight and solar radiation.

IDMP Network/Eindhoven

Lat.: 51°27' N
Long.: 5°29' E
Height above sea level: 70 m

A. J.F. Rutten / Jan Diepens
Eindhoven University of Technology B-FAGO 5135600
MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands
Tel: +31 40 47 3514 / 3350
Fax: +31 40 43 8595
E-mail : toru@fago.bwk.tue.n1,jadi@fago.bwk.tue.n1

Clock Time: GMT+1. Summer time shift (GMT+2), from last Sunday in March,
to Saturday before last Sunday in October.

  1. "Bouwbesluit; publicatii Ministerie van Volkshuisvesting Ruimtelijke Ordening en Milieubeheer", Centrale Directie Voorlichting en Externe betrekkingen, 's Gravenhage, Ministerie van Vrom, 1987, ("Dutch Building Regulations").

  2. "NEN 1890 Binnenverlichting, Functionele eisen". ("Interior lighting, Functional requirements").

  3. "NEN 1891 Binnenverlichting. Meetmethoden voor verichtingssterkten en luminanties". ("Interior lighting. Methods of measurement of illuminances and luminances", Dutch normalization Institute).

  4. "NEN 2916 Energy performance standard for non-residential buildings: calculation methods for determination of energy use of lighting installations".

  5. "NEN 3087 Visual ergonomics for lighting".

  6. "Aanbeveling voor binnenverlichting". ("Recommendations for interior lighting", published by NSVV, Dutch Illumination Society).
  1. "Zonestraling in Nederland" C.A.Velds.
KNMI (Royal Dutch Meteorological Institute)
Wilhelminalaan 10
P.O. box 201
3730 AE De Bilt
Tel: +31 30 206911
Fax: +31 30 210407
NSVV (Nederlandse Stichting Voor
Verlichtingskunde "Dutch Illumination Society")

P.O. box 9035
6800 ET Arnhem
Tel: +31 85 562466
Fax: +31 85 429123
CIE on the Internet.
ISES Nederland (International Solar Energy Society)
ECN-BURE, W.C. Sinke
P.O. box 1
1755 ZG Petten
Tel: +31 2246 4115
Fax: +31 2246 3214


More information is available at Amadeus or the Electric Library

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