Ukraine is one of the largest European countries second in area (after Russia). The Satellight database only covers its western half. Its land is mostly flat plains or gently rolling hills. Elevation generally rises from the southern Black Sea region northward, although the northernmost region of Polesie is a vast marshy lowland. The only mountain ranges are the Carpathians in the extreme west and the Yayla Range in the southern Crimea.
Most of Ukraine has a moderately continental climate, though it is alpine in the Carpathians and subtropical in parts of the Crimea. Average temperatures vary from -8°C in the north and 4°C in the south in January, to 18°C in the north and 24°C in the south in July. Annual precipitation also varies, from an average of 1500 mm in the Carpathians to 300 mm on the Black and Azov seacoasts; the south often suffers from drought.
Ukraine's leading industrial centers include Kijev (the capital), Kryvyy Rih and Nikolayev. Other industrial centers such as Khar'kovo, Dnepropetrovsk, Zaporozhye, Odessa and Kherson are not covered by the Satellight database. L'vov is the chief city of western Ukraine. Total population is 50,864,009 (World Factbook, July 1996 est.).
Stations from the IDMP Network measure both daylight and solar radiation.

Clock Time: GMT+2. Summer time shift (GMT+3), from last Sunday in March,
to Saturday before last Sunday in October.


More information is available at Amadeus or the Electric Library

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